Beta Phi Mu - Chi Chapter, Student Award for Scholarship
1997/1998 Nominee

List of Annual Award Winners

Portrayal of People with Disabilities in Children's Literature: 1940s to 1980s**

Maeleah Carlisle

**Done in part with funding from a Career Development Grant from the American Association of University Women.

This paper was originally written for Dr. Joyce Taylor's class at SLIS, Indiana University: l623, Information in the Humanities. Special thanks to Dr. Taylor for giving me a reason to write the paper and Dr. Shirley Fitzgibbons for helping me revise it.

OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION

Children's literature often reflects the current society's values and attitudes. Historically, certain topics and issues have been deemed acceptable in children's literature while others have not. One of those potentially unacceptable areas was discussing people with disabilities. In the past, many people with disabilities were forced to stay home or live in an institution1 because it was believed that they could not lead a "normal" life. By the mid 1700s people began to realize deaf or blind people could be educated and thus began to establish special schools. 2 Although society was now beginning to acknowledge people with disabilities, children's literature in general was still developing. One the first books in America written specifically for children was Nathaniel Hawthorne's A Wonder Book for Girls and Boys, was published in 1852. 3 Not until the 1860s were some juvenile books published which would later become classics, such as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Little Women (1868) by Louisa May Alcott.4 The children's book publishing era in America did not begin to flourish until the early 1900s. 5 Thus all of these factors contributed toward the delay of writers beginning to portray characters with disabilities in children's literature.

This literature review will focus on children's literature published in the United States, from the 1940s to the 1980s. Specifically, it will discuss the frequency of disabled characters appearing in children's fiction books, the different types of disabilities portrayed, the proportion of male to female characters with disabilities, their ethnicity, common stereotypes portrayed in the literature, and the literary quality of the children's books. These factors will also be used to compare books published before 1975 (1940s - 1975) and those published after 1975 (1976 - 1984).

For the purposes of this paper, children's literature was defined as books for children and youth from kindergarten through twelfth grade. A character with a disability was defined as one who had some physical, mental or emotional impairment which affected one's daily living activities. This included a few with temporary disabilities, but mostly those with "permanent" disabilities, either occurring at birth or later in life. However, this did not include those who experienced, for example, teasing, because of their freckles (an example from Baskin and Harris, 1977).

Most of the sources reviewed discussed books which had at least one character with a disability. Some of the studies further refined this to only main characters, but this review does not limit it to that. Although some of the studies covered different age ranges, for simplicity these were combined in this report. In addition, there were differences between authors who purposely chose a certain group of books to review and those that used random samples and tested for reliability and validity. However, these differences were not specifically separated in the summary of this review.

After compiling the resources for this review, it became clear that a majority of the literature focused upon analyzing the content of children's books before and after Public Law 94- 142 of 1975, the Equal Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The primary goal of this act was to give children with disabilities access to a "free and appropriate education in the least restrictive environment possible".6 One major result of this act was that many children with disabilities who were previously in a separate school or otherwise separated from the children without disabilities, were suddenly integrated, or "mainstreamed." Because of this integration, many authors subsequently hypothesized that there would be more children's books published on the topic of disabilities.

Another major form of legislation for people with disabilities was passed in 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). This act did not focus on children and therefore may not have had as big an impact on children's literature. But this is not known for sure, because no information was found on this.

METHODOLOGY

Several different methods were used to locate articles, books and dissertations which had addressed the issue of how characters with disabilities were portrayed in children's literature. This process proved to be more difficult than originally anticipated. Some good background articles were located by using the following databases-- ERIC, Library Literature and the MLA Bibliography. Specific terms were found to be useful with different databases. Search terms used with ERIC included, "handicap" and its variations, "disability,"; "children," "children's literature," "book(s),"; and "image(s)," "portray/al," and "characterization." A heading which was helpful in Library Literature was "handicapped in literature." For the MLA Bibliography, "treatment of disabled children" combined with "fiction" worked well. The Arts and Humanities Citation Index and PsychInfo, Expanded Academic Index and Lexis-Nexis were also searched, but with no success.

The Education Index, not available on CD-ROM (at Indiana University) was another index which was helpful. This index included articles that ERIC did not index. Some subject headings which were helpful were "handicapped in literature," "children's literature--evaluation," "Literature--psychology," and in older volumes, "crippled."

To locate books, a search was done on IUCAT and WorldCat/OCLC which resulted in several books and quite a few dissertations and theses exactly on the desired topic. Subject headings which were useful in this source were "handicapped in literature" combined with "children".

Several Internet searches were undertaken. Through these searches, several theses which had been written at California State University at Hayward were found. Interlibrary loan was unable to obtain copies of the theses, but the person in charge of Hayward's Reading Center copied the bibliographies and mailed them.

One of the most helpful sources for an overview, was Notes From a Different Drummer and More Notes From a Different Drummer, both by Baskin and Harris. Many of the other sources I found referred to this, and one even primarily cited this with hardly any other references.

Two other sources which I looked at, which would help one locate children's books on disabilities were Understanding Abilities, Disabilities and Capabilities: A Guide to Children's Literature7 and A to Zoo: Subject Access to Children's Picture Books. However, these sources did not provide 8 any content analyses of the books.

Thus, the primary method used to locate additional articles was a search of the bibliographies at the end of the books, theses and articles. Most of the articles were descriptive, merely summarized the information or did not cite their sources. The other problem with this approach was being unable to locate recent articles since most of the "primary" sources were written during the 1980s or earlier.

INCIDENCE OF DISABLED CHARACTERS

How many books included characters with disabilities? As could be expected, the number of children's fiction books which portrayed characters with disabilities increased from the 1940s to the 1980s. Specifically, Baskin and Harris in their bibliography found a small incremental increase for every five years beginning in 1940 until 1960. From 1966 to 1975 there was tremendous growth; twice as many books were published as the previous twenty-six years.9 One specific disability area which experienced growth from the 1960s to the 1970s, was the focus on deaf characters in children's books.10

Why was there this sudden growth of new children's books which included characters with disabilities? Baskin and Harris offered two reasons: society was ready to address the issue of disabilities and advocates were beginning to be more vocal.11

Kraus also thought societal changes were a factor. Around 1968 many teenage novels were beginning to address new issues such as sex, racial conflict, and drugs. One of these new issues was disabilities.12

After 1975, the number of books greatly increased.13 Sokolski cited a 40% increase in children's realistic fiction books (K-6th grade) after 1975.14 Baskin & Harris also cited a significant difference between their 1977 bibliography and the 1984 bibliography which included both fiction and nonfiction books portraying characters with disabilities. The whole previous thirty-six years (1940-1975) included 311 books, while in the following six years (1976-1981), there were 348 books in their bibliography.15

The number of books that included characters with disabilities was only one measure. Another way to look at these books was to see what kind of disabilities were portrayed before and after 1975. Before 1975, most studies and authors found that blindness or visual impairment, and physical or orthopedic disabilities were most frequently portrayed.16 17 18 19 20 Perhaps one of the reasons for this was that both of these kinds of disabilities were very visible and easy to describe.21 However, it was certainly not related to the number of actual people with those disabilities.22 The less common disabilities such as complete blindness as opposed to a visual impairment, were written about more frequently.23

What kinds of disabilities were represented after 1975? The most frequently portrayed disabilities remained basically the same with physical disabilities being portrayed the most.24 25 26

Additional disabilities began to appear which had been rarely seen or not seen at all in children's books. Stroud stressed that characters who were "emotionally disturbed" and "mentally retarded" had greatly increased in adolescent fiction. Baskin and Harris concurred with Stroud, but stated that the appearance of emotional disorders increased by 50% after 1970.27

Other specific areas which began to receive more attention were autism, deafness, epilepsy28, anorexia29, neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy30, learning disabilities, schizophrenia, double amputee31, and less severe disabilities, such as simply a visual impairment as opposed to blindness32. Additional areas which were addressed included AIDS, allergies, Alzheimer's disease and cancer33. On the other hand, some areas decreased, as they became less common, for example polio.34

Five studies gave specific numbers related to how frequently certain kinds of disabilities were portrayed. Harrill found, for books published after 1978, that 40% of his sample included "physically handicapped" characters. Blindness and visual impairments tied with deafness/hearing impairments at 30%. Mental disabilities followed at 23%; learning disabilities at 13%; and all others were under 10%.

Watson's analysis covered books from 1977 to 1982.35 She found, as compared to books prior to 1977, that mobility impairments were most frequently represented, followed by hearing impairments, visual impairments and developmental disabilities. Only a few dealt with learning disabilities. (She did not provide specific numbers).

Baskin and Harris found the following most frequently occurring disabilities, for books published from 1976-1981: orthopedic (25%), emotional dysfunction (17%), and then much smaller percentages for visual impairments, intellectual impairments, auditory impairments, special health problems, neurological, speech and cosmetic problems.36

McKee found that for a sample of books published from 1975-1984, the number one disability was health impairments (37%); second was orthopedic disabilities (28.4%); third was visual impairments (14.8%), fourth was hearing impairments (11.1%) and fifth was speech impairments (8.6%).37 McKee included a variety of different disabilities in the "health impairments" category, such as epilepsy and leukemia and that might account for that category receiving such high numbers. In addition, McKee specifically stated she counted the number of disabilities, not characters with disabilities because one character could have more than one disability. This could also influence her numbers.

Robertson found as she was compiling her bibliography of children's fiction books which included characters with disabilties, published from 1982 to 1991, that orthopedic disabilities were still most prevalent. Also common were neurological impairments and emotional disturbances.38

Although, this review did not specifically address the 1990s due to the lack of information, one source did cite a study done by Blaska and Lynch in 1992.39 These researchers compared the number of children's books which portrayed a character with a disability to children's books in general. Blaska stated that out of "500 award-winning and highly recommended books for children, birth to age eight, and published between 1987 and 1991...", only ten (2%) had a character with a disability, and only six of those ten books had that character as a main character in the story.40 Fiedler offered one explanation for this poor representation in the overall literature. He said great literature reflects what society is thinking, not what they should be thinking. "Disability has not been the subject of great art ..." because it just doesn't occur that often. "Serious literature addresses concerns that are at least potentially universal and physical disability is not one of those concerns."41 Fielder fortunately added that this does not mean that it never will be one of those concerns.42

GENDER

The number of books published which portrayed characters with disabilities increased as well as the variety of disabilities portrayed during this time period. Another area to consider is the proportion of male to female characters. The earlier books had more male characters. McKee found that from 1965-1974, more males (60.5%) were represented than females. From 1975 to 1984, the proportion was about equal, male to female (50.6% to 49.4%). Unfortunately this issue was not addressed in many of the studies.

ETHNIC REPRESENTATION

Today many are concerned about presenting cultural diversity. However, there are very few children's books which portray characters with disabilities from different ethnic backgrounds. McKee found that the percentage of white characters actually increased during the period prior to 1974 and the period after 1974-- 69.4% to 93.3%.43 Goldman found out of the twenty-six books she analyzed which had been published after 1975, only three had a nonwhite character.44 Goldman offered a possible reason: perhaps writers wanted to keep the issues separate, clear and simple. Baskin and Harris concurred with these findings of low representation of minorities. Out of 311 books less than twelve had black characters and only a few others had American Indians, "oriental" or Jewish.45

STEREOTYPES AND MYTHS

Fiction, as a genre, gives the writer the liberty to create a story that is not entirely, if at all, based on fact. However, there are many who would argue that in spite of this, characters with disabilities portrayed in these stories should accurately reflect the lives of people with disabilities; for instance their living environment, their feelings and relationships with other people and an accurate depiction of their disability. Many authors would say this is important because children's literature can inform and influence children's images of people with disabilities.46 47

Mellon, would argue that "this is no place for 'poetic license,' because as mainstreaming children with disabilities into regular classrooms continues, fictional portrayal of disability may either help or hinder the process."48

Quasi-fictional books are intentionally both fiction and fact. They are often used with younger children to address issues such as disabilities. However, precisely because of this dual presence, they risk serving neither function well49. According to Quicke, the quasi-fiction books should portray a character with a disability "as having interests and experiences (in addition to those specifically associated with his or her disability) with which a 'normal' child could identify."50

Many of the stereotypes and myths that have developed are a reflection of the attitudes and beliefs of the society at that time. Often these stereotypes are due to simple misunderstandings or lack of information. Baskin and Harris suggest that one should consider these beliefs in a historical continuum, having developed over time. Traditionally, society separated out people with disabilities from the rest of the community. They would consequently identify people with disabilities with some magical or mystical characteristics because they simply did not understand them. Then these misunderstandings would lead to fabrications which led to the creation of stories, myths, expressions, forms of language usage and literary responses which tried to explain away the abnormalities.51 People would either be made into a hero or god of some kind with special gifts, or demonized or characterized as a villain.52 53 54

Some commonly used literary devices used on characters with disabilities were to romanticize the situation, for example with Helen Keller or Beethoven (look at the wonderful things they were able to do) or have the character accomplish some seemingly impossible feat.55 Earlier writings related the disability to the character's personality, for example, the wicked witch was ugly and bent over56 or Captain Hook in Peter Pan.57

Biklen and Bogdan offered ten ways people with disabilities have been stereotyped in the media.58 These stereotypes were frequently referred to by the authors of the articles reviewed.

  1. The person with a disability as "pitiable and pathetic," an object to be pitied59 60, for example the poster child on the March of Dimes posters.61
  2. The person with a disability as an "object of violence." Although in reality, many people with disabilities are victims of violence, the way they are often portrayed is as helpless, thus reinforcing this stereotype that people with disabilities are unable to help themselves.
  3. The person with a disability as "sinister and/or evil." An example is in Treasure Island where the foreboding character Black Dog is introduced as "a tallow-faced man, wanting two fingers."62
  4. The person with a disability as "atmosphere." People with disabilities are thrown in just for the background effect, for example, the blind man with a cup, or the blind musician.
  5. "The person with a disability as "Super Crip." The person with a disability is a saint or godly person,63 some "brave little soul"64, or able to complete some amazing task.
  6. The person with a disability as "laughable." Here the person with a disability is the focus of ridicule because of their disability.
  7. The person with a disability as "his/her own worst-and only-enemy." This reinforces the notion that the person could succeed or could get better, "if they only tried."
  8. The person with a disability as a " burden." This reinforces the idea that people with disabilities have to be taken care of, they cannot be independent.
  9. The person with a disability as "nonsexual." People with disabilities are often portrayed as unable to have a sexual relationship or it is simply not talked about at all.65 Quicke suggested that even when love relationships do occur, they follow typical stereotypes. For instance, if the boy has a disability, the girl takes care of him and usually his disability is the result of some tragedy later in life and the girlfriend helps him through it. Often the boy "recovers from the disability." On the other hand if the girl has the disability, then she is dependent, while the boy is independent and wanting to do other activities. One example of this is in Sally, Star Patient by Alice Ross Colver, published in 1968. Sally, who has cerebral palsy, has a physical therapist who doesn't believe she will or can get married. When she does finally get married, her therapist tells her to say: "I'm a cripple, and Howard isn't; I must never forget that."66
  10. The person with a disability "as incapable of fully participating in everyday life." The settings in which the stories take place are not portraying characters with disabilities doing "normal" activities, e.g. having a career, having a family, etc.


One specific disability, deafness, also has its own share of stereotypes, some similar to the general disability stereotypes such as pity, helplessness or victimization.67 One of the problems specifically related to deafness is that many of the stories present deafness or hearing impairments as "something that can be cured by a hearing aid," for example in A Button in Her Ear by Ada B. Litchfield.68 Other stereotypes about deaf people include the belief that they live in total isolation and they are angry and frustrated because they cannot hear.69 70 Although, it is true that some deaf people may feel this way, there are many that do not.

Some other problems with books about deaf people include ridiculing deaf people and faulting the individuals, not society in general; presenting only the oral method of communication (as opposed to sign language); framing the story around the deaf person's amazing ability to totally lipread71; presenting the characters in only middle class or otherwise affluent families where the families have the money and time to dote on them; not representing the cultural or racial diversity of the deaf community; and finally, presenting "handicapist attitudes" because the books were primarily written by hearing people, not deaf authors.72 73

How often are stereotypes presented in children's books with disabled characters? Harrill, et al. found that the frequency of stereotypes decreased after 1978, compared to books prior to 1978.74 McKee75 used eight of the stereotypes described by Biklen and Bogdan and a ninth miscellaneous category. She compared books published between 1965 and 1974, and then 1975- 1984. Like Harrill, she found that a higher percentage of books were not using stereotypes during the later time period. She also found that the only major stereotype which increased in the later time period was in the category of his or her "own worst enemy."

In addition, McKee76 found for all types of disabilities, that the category of "own worst enemy" was the most common stereotype, followed by "super crip". In regard to specific disability categories, McKee found that the most common stereotype for characters with a visual impairment was the "super crip"; for the speech impaired, it was the "miraculous cure"; and for the hearing impaired, orthopedically impaired and health impaired, it was being one's "own worst enemy." However being one's "own worst enemy" was not necessarily a bad portrayal by the author, but simply that particular characteristic was present in several books.

LITERARY QUALITY

After 1975, many new children's books which included characters with disabilities were published. Perhaps advocates, teachers and librarians should have been excited about this, but many authors cautioned that quantity does not mean quality. Overall, the literary quality of children's fiction books with characters with disabilities was poor.77 Many of these books had bland language; the message was not very clear; the story line was weak; and many assumptions were taken for granted.78 Orjasaeter commented, "There are so many misleading books about mentally handicapped children."79 Goldman, in her analysis of books published after 1975, also found that the "...settings were bland. Plots were predictable and often centered around some aspect of the disability.... characters were often one dimensional..." and many were didactic. 80

Reviews of children's books should have described some of the literary problems, but this was not always the case. Goldman cautioned that reviews frequently did not judge those books which included at least one character with a disability as harshly compared to the book which had nothing to do with disabilities.81 Goldman82 and McKee83 were the only ones to formally even consider literary quality of selected books. Other studies did not even address the issue of literary quality, and many others were simply commentaries or reviews about books selected by the author. Some of the reviews and commentaries did comment on the literary quality.

When one compared the quality of this later group of books with the earlier publications, Harris and Baskin found that the literary quality of novels had vastly improved. The novels had better and more complex plots and character development, and they portrayed characters with disabilities more accurately.84 However, Harris and Baskin qualified this comment by saying that there were some books of excellent quality, some mediocre and some very poor quality books.85 One of the worst problems, overall, was poor character development.86

Stroud 87 agreed with Harris and Baskin that the literary quality had improved. During the late 1970s, the quality of the literature had improved, in particular for characters with mental disabilities in young adult fiction. Readers gained more knowledge about both information about the disability as well as the challenges and difficulties faced by the person with the disability and their families and friends. Previously the literature was very "didactic, emotion-laden, and not very objective."88 Thus early books such as Hey, Dummy! (1971) and Me, Too (1973) were valued because of their objectivity.89

Stroud also commented in another article that the literary quality of adolescent books portraying characters with disabilities had improved, but not in proportion to the number of new titles available.90 Robertson agreed with Stroud because she said that simply more books did not mean those with disabilities would be portrayed in a better way.91 However, Robertson did believe there was some improvement; she commented "...the characters have become more believable and [the] portrayal of handicaps has become more objective."92

Two ways to overcome these difficulties include: 1) the authors who write the stories need to be aware of these stereotypes and 2) they need to focus on the person or the story, not create the story around the disability.93

As Robertson said in her annotated bibliography, "Not every impairment portrayed has to be critical to the action. Not every disability in a story should be a metaphor for the protagonist's development. Juvenile fiction will feel much closer to the truth when it's what the disabled characters think, say and do that makes them stand out, not what they can't do."94

Does this mean all the "bad" or "poor" quality books should be weeded? No, it simply means, those who are selecting books, should carefully select with the audience in mind and make sure it is appropriate. Sometimes stereotyped characters can be a good way to start a discussion.95 When selecting a children's book with the purpose of introducing the topic of disabilities, one should use both bibliographies, reviews, and one's own judgement about the appropriateness. Children's fiction is an effective way to introduce information about people with disabilities, but one must do so wisely and in an informed manner.

CONCLUSIONS

A wealth of books have been published which include characters with disabilities. However, they vary in quality, accuracy and appropriateness. This review only covered six main areas: the number of books with disabled characters in them (and the number of times a disability appeared), the types of disabilities portrayed, the proportion of male to female characters, the representation of different ethnic groups, whether typical stereotypes were depicted, the levels of literary quality, and the comparison of these factors before and after 1975.

Overall, most of the studies which were reviewed, concurred with each other. The largest degree of growth was after 1975. The top two types of disabilities prior to 1975 were blindness and orthopedic or physical disabilities. Most agreed that stereotypes were present in children's books, but the frequency of this decreased after 1975. Similarly the literary quality of the books generally improved, but proportionally there was still a high percentage of poor quality books which portrayed people with disabilities. Many suggested that the best thing was to be critical when choosing appropriate books.

This literature review, however, did not cover all the issues and characteristics concerning characters with disabilities in children's books. Some additional areas which were not included were the portrayal of characters with disabilities as individuals, for example they type of school they went to, the type of job they had, and their interactions with their family and friends. Another area was looking at specific age groups and specific disabilities and doing a further analysis of those statistics. Another area which was not considered and could be useful was the book publishing trends during each time period and how that influenced the type of books published, as well as the publisher producing books portraying characters with disabilities.

Of the areas which were covered, one major weakness was the lack of quantitative data presented in the studies' results. Only seven of the studies included quantifiable information. The remaining studies focused on qualitative summaries or simply reviewed the books.

Along with this, a good content analyses of children's fiction books for the 1990s seemed to be missing. The 21st century is almost here, yet there appeared to be few studies after 1984. A new study should examine differences between the post-1975 books and the post-1990s books, after the Americans with Disabilities Act had been passed. Additional questions could be asked:



Another recommended area of research would be to subdivide some of the categories analyzed in this review. For instance, analyze children's picture books, pre-1975, 1975-1990 and 1990 to date; or analyze older children's fiction, young adult fiction, or just nonfiction for the same three time periods.

As can be seen, there are many areas which could use additional research. Why would one want to do this type of research? Today, people with disabilities are becoming more mainstreamed and a part of everyday life. Assuming that this is true, then this should be reflected in children's books since reading is such an integral part of every child's life. If children's books are still presenting an imbalanced picture on characters with disabilities, then work should be done to change this in a positive way. Research on children's literature could help substantiate these needs to publishers, authors, educators and librarians.

NOTES

1. Baskin, B. H. and K. H. Harris. Notes from a different drummer: a guide to juvenile fiction portraying the handicapped. New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1977.

2. Little, G. D. "Handicapped characters in children's literature; yesterday and today." Children's Literature Association Quarterly, 10 (4), 1986, 181-184.

3. Allen, M. N. One Hundred Years of Children's Books in America: Decade by Decade. New York: Facts on File, 1996, p. 2.

4. Allen, 1996, p. 3, 8. Op cit (ref 3)

5. Allen, 1996, p.xx. Op cit (ref. 3)

6. National Advisory Committee on the Handicapped. Annual Report United States Department of Education, 1976. Referred to In: Goldman, L. M., "The portrayal of physically disabled children in realistic fiction since 1975" Master's thesis, University of Wyoming, 1990.

7. Carlin, M. F., J. L. Laughlin and R. D. Saniga. Understanding Abilities, Disabilities and Capabilities: A Guide to Children's Literature. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 1991.

8. Lima, Carolyn W. and J. A. Lima. A to Zoo: Subject Access to Children's Picture Books. 4th ed. New Providence, N.J.: R.R. Bowker, 1993.

9. Baskin and Harris, 1977, op. cit. (ref. 1).

10. Batson, T. "The deaf person in fiction--from sainthood to Rorschach blot." Interracial Books for Children Bulletin. 11(1&2):1980, 16-18.

11. Baskin and Harris , 1977. op. cit. (ref. 1).

12. Kraus, W. K. "Adolescent novels about physical handicaps: the beginning of long term therapy." Catholic Library World, 53(2): 1981, 78-80.

13. Stroud, J. G. "Characterization of the emotionally disturbed in current adolescent fiction." Top of the News. 37(3), 1981,290-295.

14. Sokolski, C. "Image and identity: handicapped characters in children's realistic fiction, before and after P.L. 94-142." Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1985.

15. Baskin, B.H. and K. H. Harris, More notes from a different drummer. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1984.

16. Harrill, J. L. et al. "Portrayal of handicapped/disabled individuals in children's literature: before and after p ublic law 94-142," 1993. In ERIC: ED #357557.

17. Stroud, J. G. "Portrayal of physically handicapped characters in adolescent fiction." Top of the News. 36 (4), 1980, 363-367.

18. Baskin, B. H. and K H. Harris. Notes from a different drummer: a guide to juvenile fiction portraying the handicapped. New York: R.R. Booker Company, 1977.

19. Goodman, J. "Focusing on the handicapped: their portrayal in children's books. Kentucky Libraries. 49(1):1985, 10-17.

20. McKee, N. C. "The depiction of the physically disabled in preadolescent contemporary realistic fiction: a content analysis." Dissertation. Florida State University, 1987. McKee found that prior to 1975, 46.5% were visually impaired; 37.2% had orthopedic impairments.

21. Baskin & Harris, 1977, op. cit. (ref. 1).

22. Baskin and Harris, 1977, op. cit. (ref. 1).

23. Harris, K.H. and B.H. Baskin, "Treatment of disabilities in young adult fiction." Education Digest, 53(7):1988, 56-59.

24. Sokolski, C., 1985, op. cit. (Ref. 14)

25. Baskin and Harris, 1984, op. cit (Ref. 15).

26. Harrill, J. L. et al. , op. cit. (Ref. 16).

27. Baskin and Harris, 1977, op. cit. (Ref. 1).

28. Smyth, M., ed. Count me in: books for and about disabled children. Towcester, Northamptonshire [England]: The Library Association Youth Libraries Group, 1981. Pamphlet No. 23. the Library association Youth Libraries.

29. Baskin and Harris, 1984, op. cit. (Ref. 15).

30. Goodman, J. "Focusing on the handicapped: their portrayal in children's books." Kentucky Libraries. 49(1):1985, 10-17.

31. Sokolski, C., 1985, op. cit. (Ref. 14).

32. Goodman, 1985, op. cit. (Ref. 30).

33. Robertson, D. (ed.) Portraying persons with disabilities: an annotated bibliography of fiction for children and teenagers. 3rd ed. New Providence, NJ: RR Bowker, 1992, p.45.

34. Baskin and Harris, 1984, op. cit. (Ref. 15).

35. Watson, E. S. "Handicapism in children's books: a five-year update" I33nterracial Books for Children Bulletin. 13(4 & 5), 1982, 3-5.

36. Baskin and Harris, 1984, op. cit. (Ref. 15).

37. McKee, N. C., 1987, op. cit. (Ref. 20).

38. Robertson, D. (ed.) Portraying persons with disabilities: an annotated bibliography of fiction for children and teenagers. 3rd ed. New Providence, NJ: RR Bowker, 1992.

39. As reported in Blaska, 1996.

40. Blaska, J.K. Using children's literature to learn about disabilities and illness. Moorehead, MN: Practical Press, 1996, p.11.

41. Fiedler, L. A. Pity and Fear: Images of the Disabled in literature and the popular arts Proceedings of a literary symposium sponsored by ICD-International Center for the Disabled in collaboration with the United Nations, Oct. 27, 1981, p. [22].

42. Ibid.

43. McKee, N. C., 1987, op. cit. (Ref. 20)

44. Goldman, L. "The portrayal of physically disabled children in realistic fiction since 1975." Master's Thesis. University of Wyoming, 1990.

45. Baskin and Harris, 1977, op. cit. (Ref. 1).

46. Baskin and Harris, 1988, op. cit. (Ref. 23); Sokolski, 1985, op. cit. (Ref. 14); Harrill, op. cit. (Ref. 16).

47. Quicke, J. Disability in modern children's fiction. London; Cambridge, Mass: Croom Helm; Brookline Books, l995.

48. Mellon, C. A., "Exceptionality in children's books: combining apples and oranges." School Library Journal. 55(14): 1989, 150.

49. Quicke, J., op. cit. (Ref. 47).

50. Quicke, J., p. 152, op. cit. (Ref. 47)

51. Baskin, B. H. and K. H. Harris. Notes from a different drummer: a guide to juvenile fiction portraying the handicapped. New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1977.

52. Ibid.

53. Schwartz, A. V., "Disability in children's books: is visibility enough?" Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 8(6&7): 1977, 10-15.

54. Biklen, D. and R. Bogdan, "Media portrayals of disabled people: a study in stereotypes." Interracial Books for Children Bulletin. 8(6&7): 1977, 4-9.

55. Baskin and Harris, 1977, op. cit. (Ref. 51).

56. Ibid.

57. Schwartz, A.V., 1977, op. cit. (Ref.53).

58. Biklen and Bogdan, 1977, op. cit. (Ref. 54)

59. Mellon, 1989, p. 46-47, op. cit. (Ref. 48).

60. Biklen and Bogdan, 1977, op. cit. (Ref. 54).

61. Ibid.

62. Ibid, p.7

63. Ibid.

64. Mellon, 1989, op. cit. (Ref. 48)

65. Biklen and Bogdan, 1977, op. cit. (Ref. 54).

66. , Sally, Star Patient by Alice Ross Colver p. 179 in Oakley, M. C., "Juvenile fiction about the orthopedically handicapped." Top of the News. 30(1): 1973, p.59.

67. Batson, T. "The deaf person in fiction--from sainthood to Rorschach blot." Interracial Books for Children Bulletin. 11(1&2): 1980, 16-18.

68. Goodman, 1985, op. cit. (Ref. 30).

69. Ibid.

70. Schwartz, A.V. , "Books mirror society: a study of children's materials." Interracial Books for Children Bulletin. 11(1&2): 1980, 19-24.

71. Batson, 1980, op. cit. (Ref. 67).

72. Schwartz, A.V., 1980, op. cit. (Ref. 70).

73. Batson, 1980, op. cit. (Ref. 67).

74. Harrill, 1993, op. cit. (Ref. 16).

75. McKee, N. C. "The depiction of the physically disabled in preadolescent contemporary realistic fiction: a content analysis." Dissertation. Florida State University, 1987.

76.

77. Quicke, J. Disability in modern children's fiction. London; Cambridge, Mass: Croom Helm; Brookline Books, l995.

78. Ibid.

79. Orjaseaster, Tordis, "Disabled characters in search of an author: disabled children as characters." UNESCO Courier, May 1986 from Lexis, Nexis

80. Goldman, L. "The portrayal of physically disabled children in realist fiction since 1975." Master's thesis. University of Wyoming, 1990, p. 49.

81. Goldman, L. "The portrayal of physically disabled children in realist fiction since 1975." Master's thesis. University of Wyoming, 1990.

82. Ibid.

83. McKee, 1987, op. cit. (Ref. 75).

84. Harris, K.H. and B.H. Baskin, "Treatment of disabilities in young adult fiction." Education Digest, 53(7):1988, 56-59.

85. Baskin, B. H. and K. H. Harris. Notes from a different drummer: a guide to juvenile fiction portraying the handicapped. New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1977.

86. Ibid.

87. Stroud, J. G. "Treatment of the mentally handicapped in young adult fiction." Top of the News. 36(2): 1980, 208-212.

88. Ibid.

89. Ibid.

90. Stroud, J. G. "Portrayal of physically handicapped characters in adolescent fiction." Top of the News. 36(4): 1980, 363-367.

91. Robertson, D. (ed.) Portraying persons with disabilities: an annotated bibliography of fiction for children and teenagers. 3rd ed. New Providence, NJ: RR Bowker, 1992.

92. Stroud, 1980, p.363, op. cit. (Ref. 90)

93. Mellon, C.A., "Evaluating the portrayal of disabled characters in juvenile fiction." Journal of Youth Services in Libraries. 2(2):1989, 143-150.

94. Robertson, 1992, p. xii, op.cit. (Ref. 91).

95. Sokolski, C. "Image and identity: handicapped characters in children's realistic fiction, before and after P.L. 94-142." Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1985.